Bylaws
1.1 The name of the organization shall be The Islamic Medical Association of North America, also referred to as IMANA or the Association for the sake of brevity; incorporated in the State of Illinois.
2.01 The Association shall be an independent, professional, charitable, not-for-profit, non-political and educational organization. It may assume affiliation with similar organizations, associations or societies in keeping with the Aims and Objectives set forth in Article 3 below.
3.01 To promote better understanding and appreciation of the principles of Islamic medicine amongst physicians and dentists.
3.02 To encourage professional interaction amongst the Muslim Physicians, Dentists and between these and Allied Health Professionals.
3.03 To assist Muslim Physicians/Dentists and Allied Health Professionals in North America in orientation, adjustment and, finding appropriate training and job opportunities.
3.04 To promote and facilitate medical education, research, publications and better global health delivery.
3.05 To participate in medical relief work and other charitable activities.
4.01 The Corporation shall continually maintain in the State of Illinois a registered office and a registered agent whose business office is identical with such registered office and may have other offices within and outside the State of Illinois.
5.01 All Muslim Physicians/Dentists and Allied Health Professionals are eligible for membership in the Association, in accordance with the provisions of the Bylaws of the Association.
5.02 IMANA shall have categories of Members as defined in Section 5.03 through 5.11 below:
5.03 Active Members: Muslim Physicians and dentists, residing in and licensed in North America who, in the final judgment of the Executive Committee, are in good standing in their communities, who apply for the membership of IMANA, accept the Bylaws and the obligations of this membership and pay the annual dues.
5.04 Life Members: Are members who pay an amount equal to ten times the annual dues prescribed for Active Membership within a one-year period and enjoy active membership benefits for life.
5.05 Allied Health Professionals: Basic and clinical scientists, pharmacists, nurses, clinical psychologists, medical technicians, veterinarians and active hospitals and, clinic administrators who apply for membership and pay their annual dues.
5.06 Resident/Fellow Members: Muslim physicians/dentists in training who apply for membership. Residents/Fellows are exempt from annual membership dues.
5.07 Associate Members: Muslim physicians/dentists who are residing in but not licensed in USA and have paid annual dues.
5.08 Student Members: Muslim students enrolled in medical or dental schools in North America who apply for the Student Membership. Muslim Students who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents may also apply for student membership while enrolled in overseas medical schools.
5.09 Honorary Members: The Board of Regents based upon the recommendation of the Executive Committee may confer Honorary Membership upon any person.
5.10 Emeritus Members: Active Members upon retirement from their professions may apply for and be granted Emeritus Membership. Emeritus members shall pay no dues but shall continue to enjoy the privilege of Active Members except the voting rights and holding office.
5.11 Overseas Members: IMANA members who have returned overseas-will remain active members as long as they pay annual dues or if they are Life members.
5.12 All membership requests shall be evaluated by the Membership Committee and approved by the Executive Committee.
5.13 Dues are determined by the Executive Committee and the Executive Committee may, at its discretion, change membership dues for any category of members.
5.14 For purposes of computing membership dues, the membership year shall be the calendar year.
5.15

a) New members who join IMANA after October 15th will be members for the subsequent year.
b) A membership is valid for the 12 months starting the membership dues payment date.

6.01 Voting right shall be limited to Active and Life Members as described in categories 5.03 and 5.04.
6.02 Only Active and Life Members as described in 5.03 and 5.04 shall be eligible to hold office.
6.03 Failure to pay annual dues by March 31st will render a member ineligible to seek election to any office for that particular year.
6.04 Failure to pay the annual dues by June 1st of a given year will render a member ineligible to vote in that year’s election.
6.05 All members are required to uphold the basic tenets of Islam and Bylaws of IMANA, observe generally recognized and established Islamic discipline, tradition and manner and conduct, and discharge their duties and obligations to the Association in a befitting manner.
6.06 Officers of the Association shall not be entitled to any remuneration or compensation from the Association except for reasonable expenses incurred while handling officially assigned duties or responsibilities of the Association.
7.01 The Association will have the following components:

A. General Body
B. Board of Regents
C. Executive Committee
D. CouncilE. Committees
F. Local Chapters

A: GENERAL BODY
7.02 The General Body shall consist of the entire membership of the Association and shall be vested with all functional powers.
7.03 The active and life members of the General Body shall elect the officers of the Association in the manner prescribed under the election process.
7.04 The General Body shall meet once a year at the time of the Convention.

B: BOARD OF REGENTS
7.05 The board will consist of seven (7) members; three (3) Immediate Past Presidents who are willing to serve and four (4) members at-large elected by the Council. A list of four (4) candidates will be given by the nominating committee to the Council, which will elect one of them to the Board to serve a 4-year term. The term of office will be four (4) years for members at-large and three (3) years for the Immediate Past President. The incumbent President will be Ex-officio of the Board
7.06 Qualification: To be qualified for nomination to the Board of Regents, a member shall have been an Active member for five (5) preceding consecutive years or life member, and shall have been actively involved in the IMANA activities for at least five (5) years as Chairman of a Standing Committee, a member of Executive Committee or President of a local chapter. The Nomination/Election Committee each year will provide names of up to four (4) qualified candidates to the Executive Council, which will elect one of them to the Board to serve a four (4) year term.
7.07 The officers of the board shall be a Chairman and a Secretary. Each shall be elected for one year by the Board members at their first annual meeting at the Annual Convention. Each of these two officers may be re-elected for a second consecutive term.
7.08 The members of The Board of Regents shall be the trustees of the properties and other assets of the Association.
7.09 The Board shall safeguard and interpret the Association’s mission and purpose. The Board shall be extensively involved in the strategic planning of the organization. The Board shall appoint an Executive Director for the Association. The Board shall also conduct his/her overall assessment on a yearly basis.
7.10 The Board shall appoint the editor-in-chief of JIMA for 5-year renewable terms.
7.11 The Board shall appoint an IMANA representative to the Federation of Islamic Medical Associations (FIMA) for a 3-year renewable term.
7.12 The Board shall appoint Chairman of International Institute of Islamic Medicine (IIIM) for a 5-year renewable term.
7.13 The Board shall ensure legal and ethical integrity and maintain the accountability of the Association. The board shall receive quarterly reports of Association accounts.
7.14 The Board shall be the final arbiter of the corrective and grievance issues.
7:15 Board shall orient new members Board of Regents and annually assess board performance
7.16 The Board shall meet at least twice a year and may hold any number of such meetings as the regents may determine. The Board meeting may be called upon the request of at least two regents.
7.17 As the overseers of the Association, the Board shall be the only authority to receive and discuss a proposal of dissolution of the Association. In the event of dissolution the board shall be the sole body to disburse the assets of the Association after paying all the liabilities of the Association, distribute the remaining assets to
Islamic organizations with the same general purpose and tax-exempt status under section 501 (c) (3) of IRS as now enforced or henceforth amended.
7.18 The Chair of the Board will assign specific duty to each member of the Board. Each member of the Board shall be given an advisory role, i.e. advisor to one of the standing committees.
7.19 If an elected board member is unable to complete the term, the next highest vote getter in the most recent election will be appointed to fill that vacancy. If a past President is unable to finish the term, one of the prior past Presidents will be appointed subject to the recommendation of the Chair and approval of the Board. He/she will complete the term of the persons they replace.

C: EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
7.20 The term of the officers of the Executive Committee shall comprise as listed below:

1. President – Two years
2. Vice President – Two years
3. Secretary – One year (no change)
4. Treasurer – One year (no change)
5. Immediate Past President – Two years
6. Executive Director (as a non-voting officio)
The position of the President Elect is eliminated.
The Vice President to assume duties of the President Elect

7.21 The Executive Committee shall be responsible for the overall management of the affairs of IMANA.
7.22 It shall be responsible for implementing the decisions of the General Body, the Council, and the Board of Regents.
7.23 It shall establish procedures for routine functioning of the Association, preparing annual budget, approving office staff, etc.
7.24 It shall propose the venue for the national and international conventions.

D: COUNCIL
7.25 The Council shall be comprised of:

A. All members of the Executive Committee
B. All members of the Board of Regents
C. Chairpersons of all Standing Committees
D. Editor of JIMA
E. Chairman of IIIM
F. IMANA Representative to FIMA
G. Presidents of the active Local Chapters (Non-Voting Members)
Committee Co-chairs can stand in place of Chair of Committee with voting rights

7.26 The Council shall provide guidance and advice to the Executive Committee on important matters of The Association.
7.27 The Council shall pass the annual budget of the Association in the Fall meeting.
7.28 Executive Committee makes decision on annual convention locations
7.29 Council shall act on any proposed Amendments to the Bylaws of the Association before presenting it to the General Body for a final vote.

E: COMMITTEES
7.30 The Association shall have the following Standing Committees. The composition and functions of these committees are outlined in the Appendix.

A. Auxiliary
B. Allied Health Sciences
C. Bylaws
D. Continuing Medical Education (CME)
E. Ethics
F. Finance
G. Human Services & Medical Relief
H. Membership
I . Resident and student Committee

G: LOCAL CHAPTERS
7.31 Any ten or more Active Members/Life Members residing in a distinct geographic area may request permission from the IMANA Executive Committee to associate themselves into a Local Chapter of IMANA.
7.32 It is strongly recommended that all members of local chapters become members of IMANA. The Chapter shall have Bylaws that conform to the Bylaws of the Association. The Chapter shall have an executive body comprising of at least a President and a Secretary who should be active members of IMANA.
7.33 The Chapters shall manage their own affairs, including finances, completely independent of IMANA in a manner chosen by its Executive Body.
7.34 The Chapters shall make all efforts to facilitate the achievements of the purposes and goals of the Association, particularly the recruitment of new members of IMANA.
7.35 The Chapters shall not carry out or knowingly support any activity that may be, or is likely to be, detrimental to the interests of IMANA, or contrary to generally recognized and established Islamic discipline, traditions and mannerism.
7.36 All IMANA membership dues are to be paid to IMANA Headquarters directly. Fifty percent of the dues collected by a local chapter from a first time IMANA annual member and a sum of $100.00 (being 50% of their First year due) collected by an IMANA annual member will be credited to the local chapter account that initiated the membership process. Disbursement of these funds to the local chapter should be approved by the IMANA Vice President. In addition, the Chapter may have its own dues.
7.37 The Chapter could open a local bank account, but should not use the IMANA Tax ID for that purpose. It can use a designated master account of IMANA. Any donation of chapter members should be deposited with the IMANA master account and disbursed by IMANA.
7.38 The Chapter shall report its financial statements and activities to IMANA Headquarters on a quarterly basis.
7.39 Active IMANA Local Chapter is defined as one that a) complies with all IMANA bylaws and specifically with IMANA Local Chapter section of the bylaws b) Conducts regular meetings in the chapter c) Send reports to the IMANA Headquarter.
7.40 The Presidents of the active Local Chapters or his/her designee shall be invited to all Council meetings
7.41 The Presidents of the active Local Chapters or his/her designee shall be non-voting members of the council.

A) To be nominated to the office, a member must have completed two consecutive years of active membership and must have served on IMANA Standing Committee for at least one term.
B) To be nominated to an office of the President-Elect, a member must have completed 5 years of Active membership and served as a member of the Executive Committee or chaired a Standing Committee for at least two terms.
The President shall:
9.01 Be the Chief Executive Officer of the Association and will ensure effective implementation of the policies
9.02 Preside over all Executive Committee meetings.
9.03 Appoint Chairpersons of various Standing Committees with approval of the Executive Committee, except as otherwise indicated in Appendix.
9.04 The President can appoint Ad-hoc Committees as needed with approval of the Executive Committee.
9.05 Present the IMANA Annual Report to The General Body at the Annual General Body meeting.
9.06 Act as the chief spokesperson, representative and correspondent of the Association.
9.07 Conduct annual evaluation of the Executive Director and submit his/her report to the Board of Regents.
9.08 President will be an Ex-Officio (non-voting) of all Standing Committees and of the Board of Regents.

The President-Elect shall:
9.09 Assist the President in all his/her duties.
9.10 Act for the President in his/her absence or disability.
9.11 Be the Chairman of the Annual Convention.

The Vice President shall:
9.12 Assist the President and the President-elect in performing their duties.
9.13 Be responsible for regular publication of the IMANA’s Newsletter.
9.14 Help membership committee to increase membership.
9.15 Coordinate activities of the Local Chapters.

The Secretary shall:
9.16 Prepare the agenda for each Executive Committee meeting and appropriately notify the members about the time and place of the meeting.
9.17 Keep minutes of all meetings and present them at the next meeting in Chart format.
9.18 Submit a summary of the Executive Committee meetings for publication in the Newsletter.
9.19 Maintain a membership register and record of committee appointments.
9.20 Be responsible for internal correspondence of IMANA.
9.21 Submit the “Secretary’s Report” to the annual general body meeting after consultation with the President.
9.22 Perform all duties incidental to the office of Secretary and such other duties as the President may assign from time to time to him or her.

The Treasurer shall:
9.23 Maintain an accurate and current record of all receipts and expenditures of all funds of the Association.
9.24 Deposit all funds received in designated bank accounts.
9.25 Authorize and/or sign all checks on behalf of the IMANA.
9.26 Obtain approval from the President for expenditures exceeding $1,000.00.
9.27 Prepare and present Annual Budget of the Association to the Council in its Fall Meeting.
9.28 Present the Annual Audited Financial Report at the Annual General Body meeting and provide financial reports of the Association to the Board quarterly.

Any vacancy in the offices of the Association occurring for any reason will be filled as follows:
10.01 Any officer filling in a vacancy during the course of a term shall serve in that capacity only for the remainder of that term.
10.02 The President-elect shall take over as the President & the Vice President shall take over as President-elect.
10.03 All other vacancies shall be filled by The Board of Regents from amongst the council members.
10.04 Any officer filling in a vacancy during the course of a term shall serve in that capacity only for the remainder of that term.
10.05 Should a President-elect assume the presidency before the start of his or her regular term, he or she shall continue to serve for the period of his or her regular term also.
10.06 The newly elected officers shall take office on the day following the business session of the Annual Convention.
11.01 All officers of the Association shall be elected as per the term period listed in 7.
11.02 No member shall be elected for two consecutive terms to the same office.
12.01 Elections are to be held annually.
12.02 A nominating (Election) Committee shall be comprised of:

A. Immediate Past-President of IMANA as the Chair.
B. Chair of the Board of Regents.
C. Chair of IMANA membership Committee
D. Two Life Members shall be chosen by the chair of the committee in consultation with other committee members.

12.3 The Nominating Committee shall solicit nomination from Active/Life members no later than 10 weeks prior to the Annual Convention through mail, newsletter, personal contact, email or online forms.
12.04 After ascertaining eligibility and availability of the nominee, the nominating committee will select one or preferably two out of the nominated individuals for each vacant position who will best serve the interest of the Association. However, if a nominee receives 25 nominations from those members who are in good standing for 2 consecutive years, he or she shall be included on the ballot.
12.05 No member of the nominating committee will be eligible for any office on the ballot computed by the committee.
12.06 The Committee shall prepare the final slate & mail a composite ballot to the voting members no later than 6 weeks prior to the Annual Convention.
12.07 Returned ballots postmarked after the prescribed date shall not be opened or counted.
12.08 The ballots should be counted at the convention by the Election Committee.
12.09 The Election Committee Chair shall announce the results of the election at the Business Session of the Annual General Body Meeting.

13.01 Amendments/revisions to the Bylaws may be proposed by the Executive Committee, the Bylaws Committee or by a petition signed by at least ten (10) active/Life members. The proposed amendments will be forwarded to the Chair of the Bylaws Committee for committee’s opinion and recommendations. These in turn will be submitted to the Council at its subsequent meeting for approval.
13.02 The Bylaws amendments/revisions approved by the Council shall be presented at the next General Body Meeting of the Association and shall be approved if it receives 50% of the vote in the meeting, which is in a quorum.
13.03 If an amendment fails to be adopted at the General Body Meeting for lack of quorum, or if it is believed by the Council that it is of an urgent nature and can not wait for the next general body meeting, it shall be mailed to voting members on record and will be passed if approved by simple majority of respondents received before an established deadline.
13.04 Adopted amendments shall become effective immediately, unless otherwise specified.
14.01 Any member who commits apostasy in a manner derogatory to Islam, detrimental to IMANA or violates the Bylaws of IMANA will be liable to corrective action by the Board of Regents.
14.02 Any member of the Executive Committee or Board of Regents or any two Active/Life members of IMANA may file a complaint in writing confidentially to the President along with a copy to the Chairman of the Board of Regents.
14.03 The President will then forward the complaint to an ad-hoc Grievance Committee as appointed by the Board of Regents within seven (7) days of its receipt.
14.04 This committee will investigate the merits of the complaint and will submit its findings along with its recommendations within three months of receipt by the committee.
14.05 The Executive Committee, after discussing the report at its next scheduled meeting will forward its recommendations to the Board of Regents for final action.
14.06 The Board of Regents will be the only authority to take a disciplinary action against an IMANA member. Such an action may vary from written admonition to expulsion from IMANA.
14.07 In the event the Board of Regents judges, either in accord with the recommendation of the Executive Committee or on its own, if the accused is judged to be not guilty than the matter shall be considered resolved.
14.08 In the event the Board of Regents judges, either in accord with the recommendation of the Executive Committee or on its own, the accused is judged to be guilty, then the Board will declare a disciplinary action. However before this action is finalized the accused shall be informed of this decision in writing within seven days. The accused shall be provided an opportunity to appeal the decision in writing along with any documentary evidence the accused deem fit.
14.09 The final judgment of the Board of Regents following the above procedure shall not be challenged in any court of law.
14.10 In the event a complaint is filed against a sitting member of the Board of Regents, same procedure as outlined above will follow for its resolution. The charged Regent shall not participate in the initial deliberation of the Board.
14.11 A sitting officer or a Regent once declared guilty of the charge by the full Board shall be relieved of the assigned responsibilities and shall hand over immediately all records and assets in his/her possession to the Board of Regents or their designee.
15.01 The Executive Committee will meet four times a year, the Council shall meet at least twice a year (and more often when desirable), and the Board of Regents at least twice a year.
15.02 The first meeting of the newly elected Executive Committee shall be held soon after their taking charge of the office.
15.03 Any two members of the Committee or the President may request a Special Meeting of the Executive Committee.
15.04 The Quorum of the Board of Regents and Executive Committee meetings, shall be 50% of its membership, for the Council 1/3, and for the General Body 1/10 of the membership.
15.05 All meetings shall be arranged with due regard to prayer times and facilities for prayer arranged during each meeting.
15.06 All meetings of the Association shall be conducted according to the Robert Rules of Order, newly revised.
16.01 IMANA will publish a periodic scientific journal (JIMA).
16.02 The Editor-in-Chief of JIMA will be appointed by the Board of Regents for five years renewable terms.
16.03 The Editor in Chief will select an Editorial Board. These should be members of IMANA.
16.04 The Editor-in-Chief can select an Advisory Board whose members are not necessarily members of IMANA.
17.01 The purpose of the International Institute of Islamic Medicine (IIIM) is to be a Long Range Project of IMANA dedicated to the study of the history of Islamic medicine under the direction of some of the most experienced and dedicated scientists. IIIM sponsors research projects and publication of books on Islamic Medicine.
17.02 There should be no separate membership or dues for IIIM. However IMANA members can donate for IIIM projects.
17.03 Executive Committee· Chairman/Treasurer· President of IMANA as ex officio· Executive Secretary (part time)· Advisory Council
17.04 The Governance: · Chairman· Executive Secretary (part time)· Presidential Council (Board and interested past presidents)· Advisory Council (Non medical scholars interested in Islamic medicine)· The President of IMANA will be an ex officio of IIIM Executive Committee
17.05 The Chairman is appointed by the Board of Regents for a term of 5 years, which can be renewed by mutual agreement. The Chairman works under the direction of the Board of Regents and communicates with the President. The chairman shall forward to the IMANA Executive Committee minutes of any Executive IIIM meetings held.
17.06 IIIM can have a separate account managed by its Chairman & Treasurer, if any. This would be a designated sub-account of IMANA. Quarterly Income/Expense reports should be submitted to IMANA Headquarters. The annual tax return is to be included in IMANA tax return. The Board of Regents should approve the Annual Budget.
17.07 Conferences A. Local conferences are to be organized with local chapters.B. Overseas conferences can be held when IMANA holds its Convention in North America, with the approval of the Board.
18.01 The Association may assume affiliation(s) with other organization(s), which in the opinion of the Board will help advance the Aims and Objectives of IMANA.
18.02 Affiliation decisions shall be made by a majority vote of the Board.
19.01 No part of the net earnings of the Association shall incur to the benefit of, or otherwise be distributed to, its Officers, Regents, or Members except that the Executive Committee shall be authorized and empowered to pay a reasonable compensation for services rendered.
19.02 Notwithstanding any other provisions herein, the Association shall not carry out any other activities not permitted to (a) an organization exempt from Federal Income Tax under section 501-C (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or corresponding provisions of any future U.S. Internal Revenue Laws, or
(b) an organization, contributions to which are deductible under section 170-C (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or corresponding provision of any future U.S. Internal Revenue Laws.
19.03 In the event of dissolution of the Association, the Board of Regents shall, after paying or making provisions for payment of, all liabilities of the Association, distribute all remaining assets to an Islamic charitable organization operating under section 501-C (3) of the Internal Revenue Code as now enforced or henceforth amended.

Appendix Ad-Hoc Committees:
May be appointed as deemed necessary by the President unless stated otherwise.
Grievance Committee:

1. Appointed by the Board of Regents as necessary.
2. Will consist of three-five active/Life members of the Association who are in good standing for at least 10 years.
3. Preferably it should include, in addition, an Imam/religious scholar if the complaint is over a religious issue.
4. The committee will be appointed by the chair of the Board of Regents and approved by the Board.
5. The committee will review complaints against IMANA member(s) forwarded to it by the President. The committee will investigate the Complaint and report its findings and recommendations to the Executive Committee. Standing Committees

Auxiliary Committee:

1. Arrange for parallel programs for spouses during IMANA conventions.
2. Arrange programs for youth activities during IMANA conventions or other events.

Allied Health Sciences Committee:

1. Encourage membership of Allied Health Personnel.
2. Facilitate research opportunities for IMANA members in training.

Bylaws Committee:
The committee will be responsible for developing and reviewing recommendations for amendments to the Bylaws to keep organizational structure and function responsive to the current needs. The chairman of this committee will serve as a resource person to the organization for parliamentary procedure and conduct of meetings, etc. The committee will organize programs for the leadership of the association to learn parliamentary procedure and conduct of meetings, etc. The term of the committee will be renewable.

Continuing Medical Education (CME) Committee:
Will organize the scientific sessions and educational programs at the time of annual as well as regional meetings. It will serve as a resource to various regions for organizing their scientific educational programs. The committee will develop a network of Muslim physicians involved in academic activities. Will help new International Medical Graduates (IMGs) to get into training programs. The term will be renewable. Committee: Provide scholarship for needy medical students. Compile a list of IMANA members who are willing to be on the Speakers’ Bureau list.

Ethics Committee:
To research the Islamic position on different biological/medical issues and report their findings in statements or policy guidelines. To answer questions by the membership regarding ethical/religious aspects of medical sciences/management. To respond to outside agencies’ inquiries about Islamic position on biological/medical issues. Arrange for programs on ethical issues within the scientific programs of IMANA. Develop liaison with other ethics committees/organizations.

Finance Committee:
Plan fundraising activities. Help raising funds during quarterly Executive Committee meetings, Council meetings and Annual General Body meetings. Help with mailing efforts to raise the funds.

Medical Relief Committee:
The committee will develop a program for disaster management, so that the members of the organization may be able to respond to natural or man-made calamities and disasters in the world. It will oversee the fundraising and training of personnel for relief effort. The committee will develop a liaison with the other health care entities in North America and Muslim countries for the facilitation of the provision of medical personnel and/or medical supplies, food and clothing in the disaster areas. The
Committee will develop policies and procedures for international relief in accordance with existing USA laws. The term of the committee will be two years.

Membership Committee:
The membership committee shall be responsible for development of programs for enrollment of new members and retention of current members. The committee will develop and organize a membership benefits package to make membership attractive for the Muslim physicians and other health professionals. The committee will study the needs and the desires of the physicians and health professionals in general, and the membership in particular, and make appropriate recommendations to the Council, so that the Association’s programs can be adjusted to meet those needs and wishes. The Committee will review the applications for membership and then recommend new members to the Executive Committee.

Student/Resident Committee:
The Committee will provide support for Physicians-in-training to help them develop a Physicians-in-Training Section within the organization. The Committee will assess the needs of the Physicians-in-training and develop programs in the Association to help meet those needs. The Committee will develop a network of senior physicians to provide guidance and mentoring to the physicians-in-training.